Protocols and MVVM in Swift to avoid repetition

When we were laying the groundwork for our latest iOS application Viable, we wanted to learn from our previous iOS applications. We set out two goals:

  • Avoid the Massive View Controller syndrome
  • Have as little repetitive code as possible

The initial Viable screens we got from our design team has a lot of similar screens. Take a look at a simplified example below. Both screens have a UILabel on top and a UITableView displaying search results. The UITableViewCell for each result is very similar. They share more or less the same layout but display different data.

Viable has six different types of data to display, creating a new view controller for each type would mean a lot of duplicate code. Ideally we have one SearchResultsViewController that was capable of displaying all six data types.
A big if/else statement in tableView:cellForRowAtIndexPath: to render a different cell depending on the data type might be the first solution that comes to mind, but that wouldn’t scale well and would also result in a long and ugly method.

MVVM and Protocols to the rescue

Taylor Guidon wrote an introductory blog post to the MVVM pattern that you can find here. This is the tl;dr version applied to our demo project that you can find on Github.


Our models in the model group, will hold the data. We have a DomainModel and a ProductModel, both of which are structs. The DomainModel will hold the domain name and its status. The ProductModel will hold the product name, product rating, product logo and the product price.

struct Product {
var name: String
var rating: Double
var price: Double?

View Models

Every data model has its respective view model. In our example that means we have a DomainViewModel and a ProductViewModel. View models take data from a model and apply transformations to the view before we present them to the user. For instance, our ProductViewModel will take the float 4.99 price and convert it into a string that reads $4.99.

class ProductViewModel: CellRepresentable {
var product: Product
var rowHeight: CGFloat = 80

var price: String {
guard let price = product.price else {
return "free"

return "$\(price)"

init(product: Product) {
self.product = product

func cellInstance(_ tableView: UITableView, indexPath: IndexPath) -> UITableViewCell {
// Dequeue a cell
let cell = tableView.dequeueReusableCell(withIdentifier: "ProductCell", for: indexPath) as! ProductTableViewCell

// Pass ourselves (the view model) to setup the cell
cell.setup(vm: self)

// Return the cell
return cell


In our example our views are our two UITableViewCells. We have a DomainTableViewCell and a ProductTableViewCell. The layout if these is done in the app’s storyboard. Both classes are simple, they have just one setup method that takes a view model. The view model is used to populate the cell, for instance take the readable price ($4.99) and assing that to a UILabel text property.

class ProductTableViewCell: UITableViewCell {
func setup(vm: ProductViewModel) {
self.textLabel?.text =
self.detailTextLabel?.text = vm.price

Glueing it together

Now that we listed the 3 pillars, let’s bring them together. To combine our view controller and our view models we’ll use a protocol. Protocols define which variables and methods a class or struct should have when it wants to conform to the protocol. Think of it as a contract, if you want to conform to protocol X you need to implement everything that protocol X dictates. For the domains and products we created a CellRepresentable protocol. It has one property and one method for the sake of simplicity. Both of our view models, the DomainViewModel and ProductViewModel conform to this protocol.

protocol CellRepresentable {
var rowHeight: CGFloat { get }
func cellInstance(_ tableView: UITableView, indexPath: IndexPath) -> UITableViewCell

Since protocols are first class citizens in Swift, our SearchResultsViewController file holds a data array that holds the view models it needs to display. Instead of initializing the data array as [DomainViewModel]() or [ProductViewModel]() we can just use our protocol instead so it can hold all of our view models var data = [CellRepresentable](). Since our DomainViewModel and our ProductViewModel conform to CellRepresentable, the data array can hold both.

Now that all of the data in the array conforms to the CellRepresentable protocol, we know for sure it has a cellInstance(_ tableView: UITableView, indexPath: IndexPath) method that returns a UITableViewCell. Thanks to this our tableView:cellForRowAtIndexPath: only needs to call the cellInstance method.

extension SearchresultsViewController: UITableViewDataSource {
func tableView(_ tableView: UITableView, numberOfRowsInSection section: Int) -> Int {
return data.count

func tableView(_ tableView: UITableView, cellForRowAt indexPath: IndexPath) -> UITableViewCell {
return data[indexPath.row].cellInstance(tableView, indexPath: indexPath)

extension SearchresultsViewController: UITableViewDelegate {
func tableView(_ tableView: UITableView, heightForRowAt indexPath: IndexPath) -> CGFloat {
return data[indexPath.row].rowHeight

And that’s all there is to it. We have one tiny view controller that is capable of displaying a variety of cells with different row heights! You can find the demo project on ISL’s Github page. If you have suggestions or questions, don’t hesitate to tweet @thomasdegry.